Android隐式启动匹配:action,category,data

简介

Android开发中,Activity,Service 和 BroadcastReceiver 启动有两种方式,显示启动和隐式启动。

为方便下面描述,我以Activity启动为例。

显示启动便是直接指定上下文和启动的Activity的类:

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Intent intent = new Intent(this,Activity.class);
startActivity(intent);

隐式启动则灵活的多,通过action,category 和 data 的组合,实现多种匹配方法来启动Activity。

下面简单介绍一下隐式启动。


隐式启动

前面说过,隐式启动匹配主要靠 action,category 和 data。

特别要注意,隐式启动的Activity在AndroidManifest配置中务必加上
<category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT"/>


1.根据 action 和 categories 来进行匹配

通过Intent设置action和category值来匹配启动Activity。

AndroidManifest.xml 对 Activity 进行相应定义

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<activity android:name=".Activity">
<intent-filter>
<action android:name="me.pwcong.demo.activity"/>
<category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT"/>
<category android:name="android.intent.category.DEMO"/>
</intent-filter>
</activity>

类文件

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Intent intent = new Intent();
//指定AndroidManifest里配置的action标签的name值
intent.setAction("me.pwcong.demo.activity")
//可不添加category,因为默认会添加 Intent.CATEGORY_DEFAULT
intent.addCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_DEFAULT);
intent.addCategory("android.intent.category.DEMO");
startActivity(intent);

要点

  1. 若有多个不同的Activity在AndroidManifest中配置了相同的 action和category,则执行启动方法是系统会弹出启动列表供用户选择启动哪个

  2. 单靠category不能进行匹配,需结合action匹配使用。
    因为单靠category进行匹配之时,若执行启动方法后,系统只通过category进行匹配找不到需要启动的activity就会报错。例如:
    AndroidManifest.xml

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    <activity android:name=".MyActivityTwo">
    <intent-filter>
    <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
    <category android:name="me.pwcong.demo.hello"></category>
    </intent-filter>
    </activity>

类文件

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Intent intent = new Intent();
intent.addCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_DEFAULT);
intent.addCategory("me.pwcong.demo.hello");
startActivity(intent);


2.根据 data 来进行匹配

如果在AndroidManifest.xml里面指定了这行,那么,需要匹配到它的话,在代码里必须要设置intent的data,如intent.setData(uri)

AndroidManifest.xml配置

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<activity android:name=".Activity">
<intent-filter>
<action android:name="me.pwcong.demo.activity"/>
<category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT"/>
<data android:scheme="content"
host="pwcong.me"
port="8080"
path="/hello"/>
</intent-filter>
</activity>

类文件

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Uri uri = Uri.parse("content://pwcong.me:8080/hello");
Intent intent = new Intent();
//可不添加category,因为默认会添加 Intent.CATEGORY_DEFAULT
intent.addCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_DEFAULT);
intent.setData(uri);
startActivity(intent);

要点

  1. Data的语法
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    <data android:host="string"
    android:mimeType="string"
    android:path="string"
    android:pathPattern="string"
    android:pathPrefix="string"
    android:port="string"
    android:scheme="string" />

Uri的格式: scheme://host:port/path or pathPrefix or pathPattern

  1. 如果scheme没有指定,那其它的属性均无效;

  2. 如果host没有指定,那么port,path,pathPrefix,pathPattern均无效;

  3. 可以有多个data,只需匹配其中一个即可


3.根据 action 和 mimeType 来进行匹配

Intent-Filter中的有一个 mimeType 属性. 它的作用是告诉Android系统本Activity可以处理的文件的类型。如设置为 “text/plain”表示可以处理“.txt”文件。

常用mimeType表如下:

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3gp video/3gpp
aab application/x-authoware-bin
aam application/x-authoware-map
aas application/x-authoware-seg
ai application/postscript
aif audio/x-aiff
aifc audio/x-aiff
aiff audio/x-aiff
als audio/X-Alpha5
amc application/x-mpeg
ani application/octet-stream
apk application/vnd.android.package-archive
asc text/plain
asd application/astound
asf video/x-ms-asf
asn application/astound
asp application/x-asap
asx video/x-ms-asf
au audio/basic
avb application/octet-stream
avi video/x-msvideo
awb audio/amr-wb
bcpio application/x-bcpio
bin application/octet-stream
bld application/bld
bld2 application/bld2
bmp image/bmp
bpk application/octet-stream
bz2 application/x-bzip2
cal image/x-cals
ccn application/x-cnc
cco application/x-cocoa
cdf application/x-netcdf
cgi magnus-internal/cgi
chat application/x-chat
class application/octet-stream
clp application/x-msclip
cmx application/x-cmx
co application/x-cult3d-object
cod image/cis-cod
cpio application/x-cpio
cpt application/mac-compactpro
crd application/x-mscardfile
csh application/x-csh
csm chemical/x-csml
csml chemical/x-csml
css text/css
cur application/octet-stream
dcm x-lml/x-evm
dcr application/x-director
dcx image/x-dcx
dhtml text/html
dir application/x-director
dll application/octet-stream
dmg application/octet-stream
dms application/octet-stream
doc application/msword
dot application/x-dot
dvi application/x-dvi
dwf drawing/x-dwf
dwg application/x-autocad
dxf application/x-autocad
dxr application/x-director
ebk application/x-expandedbook
emb chemical/x-embl-dl-nucleotide
embl chemical/x-embl-dl-nucleotide
eps application/postscript
eri image/x-eri
es audio/echospeech
esl audio/echospeech
etc application/x-earthtime
etx text/x-setext
evm x-lml/x-evm
evy application/x-envoy
exe application/octet-stream
fh4 image/x-freehand
fh5 image/x-freehand
fhc image/x-freehand
fif image/fif
fm application/x-maker
fpx image/x-fpx
fvi video/isivideo
gau chemical/x-gaussian-input
gca application/x-gca-compressed
gdb x-lml/x-gdb
gif image/gif
gps application/x-gps
gtar application/x-gtar
gz application/x-gzip
hdf application/x-hdf
hdm text/x-hdml
hdml text/x-hdml
hlp application/winhlp
hqx application/mac-binhex40
htm text/html
html text/html
hts text/html
ice x-conference/x-cooltalk
ico application/octet-stream
ief image/ief
ifm image/gif
ifs image/ifs
imy audio/melody
ins application/x-NET-Install
ips application/x-ipscript
ipx application/x-ipix
it audio/x-mod
itz audio/x-mod
ivr i-world/i-vrml
j2k image/j2k
jad text/vnd.sun.j2me.app-descriptor
jam application/x-jam
jar application/java-archive
jnlp application/x-java-jnlp-file
jpe image/jpeg
jpeg image/jpeg
jpg image/jpeg
jpz image/jpeg
js application/x-javascript
jwc application/jwc
kjx application/x-kjx
lak x-lml/x-lak
latex application/x-latex
lcc application/fastman
lcl application/x-digitalloca
lcr application/x-digitalloca
lgh application/lgh
lha application/octet-stream
lml x-lml/x-lml
lmlpack x-lml/x-lmlpack
lsf video/x-ms-asf
lsx video/x-ms-asf
lzh application/x-lzh
m13 application/x-msmediaview
m14 application/x-msmediaview
m15 audio/x-mod
m3u audio/x-mpegurl
m3url audio/x-mpegurl
ma1 audio/ma1
ma2 audio/ma2
ma3 audio/ma3
ma5 audio/ma5
man application/x-troff-man
map magnus-internal/imagemap
mbd application/mbedlet
mct application/x-mascot
mdb application/x-msaccess
mdz audio/x-mod
me application/x-troff-me
mel text/x-vmel
mi application/x-mif
mid audio/midi
midi audio/midi
mif application/x-mif
mil image/x-cals
mio audio/x-mio
mmf application/x-skt-lbs
mng video/x-mng
mny application/x-msmoney
moc application/x-mocha
mocha application/x-mocha
mod audio/x-mod
mof application/x-yumekara
mol chemical/x-mdl-molfile
mop chemical/x-mopac-input
mov video/quicktime
movie video/x-sgi-movie
mp2 audio/x-mpeg
mp3 audio/x-mpeg
mp4 video/mp4
mpc application/vnd.mpohun.certificate
mpe video/mpeg
mpeg video/mpeg
mpg video/mpeg
mpg4 video/mp4
mpga audio/mpeg
mpn application/vnd.mophun.application
mpp application/vnd.ms-project
mps application/x-mapserver
mrl text/x-mrml
mrm application/x-mrm
ms application/x-troff-ms
mts application/metastream
mtx application/metastream
mtz application/metastream
mzv application/metastream
nar application/zip
nbmp image/nbmp
nc application/x-netcdf
ndb x-lml/x-ndb
ndwn application/ndwn
nif application/x-nif
nmz application/x-scream
nokia-op-logo image/vnd.nok-oplogo-color
npx application/x-netfpx
nsnd audio/nsnd
nva application/x-neva1
oda application/oda
oom application/x-AtlasMate-Plugin
pac audio/x-pac
pae audio/x-epac
pan application/x-pan
pbm image/x-portable-bitmap
pcx image/x-pcx
pda image/x-pda
pdb chemical/x-pdb
pdf application/pdf
pfr application/font-tdpfr
pgm image/x-portable-graymap
pict image/x-pict
pm application/x-perl
pmd application/x-pmd
png image/png
pnm image/x-portable-anymap
pnz image/png
pot application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
ppm image/x-portable-pixmap
pps application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
ppt application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
pqf application/x-cprplayer
pqi application/cprplayer
prc application/x-prc
proxy application/x-ns-proxy-autoconfig
ps application/postscript
ptlk application/listenup
pub application/x-mspublisher
pvx video/x-pv-pvx
qcp audio/vnd.qcelp
qt video/quicktime
qti image/x-quicktime
qtif image/x-quicktime
r3t text/vnd.rn-realtext3d
ra audio/x-pn-realaudio
ram audio/x-pn-realaudio
rar application/x-rar-compressed
ras image/x-cmu-raster
rdf application/rdf+xml
rf image/vnd.rn-realflash
rgb image/x-rgb
rlf application/x-richlink
rm audio/x-pn-realaudio
rmf audio/x-rmf
rmm audio/x-pn-realaudio
rmvb audio/x-pn-realaudio
rnx application/vnd.rn-realplayer
roff application/x-troff
rp image/vnd.rn-realpix
rpm audio/x-pn-realaudio-plugin
rt text/vnd.rn-realtext
rte x-lml/x-gps
rtf application/rtf
rtg application/metastream
rtx text/richtext
rv video/vnd.rn-realvideo
rwc application/x-rogerwilco
s3m audio/x-mod
s3z audio/x-mod
sca application/x-supercard
scd application/x-msschedule
sdf application/e-score
sea application/x-stuffit
sgm text/x-sgml
sgml text/x-sgml
sh application/x-sh
shar application/x-shar
shtml magnus-internal/parsed-html
shw application/presentations
si6 image/si6
si7 image/vnd.stiwap.sis
si9 image/vnd.lgtwap.sis
sis application/vnd.symbian.install
sit application/x-stuffit
skd application/x-Koan
skm application/x-Koan
skp application/x-Koan
skt application/x-Koan
slc application/x-salsa
smd audio/x-smd
smi application/smil
smil application/smil
smp application/studiom
smz audio/x-smd
snd audio/basic
spc text/x-speech
spl application/futuresplash
spr application/x-sprite
sprite application/x-sprite
spt application/x-spt
src application/x-wais-source
stk application/hyperstudio
stm audio/x-mod
sv4cpio application/x-sv4cpio
sv4crc application/x-sv4crc
svf image/vnd
svg image/svg-xml
svh image/svh
svr x-world/x-svr
swf application/x-shockwave-flash
swfl application/x-shockwave-flash
t application/x-troff
tad application/octet-stream
talk text/x-speech
tar application/x-tar
taz application/x-tar
tbp application/x-timbuktu
tbt application/x-timbuktu
tcl application/x-tcl
tex application/x-tex
texi application/x-texinfo
texinfo application/x-texinfo
tgz application/x-tar
thm application/vnd.eri.thm
tif image/tiff
tiff image/tiff
tki application/x-tkined
tkined application/x-tkined
toc application/toc
toy image/toy
tr application/x-troff
trk x-lml/x-gps
trm application/x-msterminal
tsi audio/tsplayer
tsp application/dsptype
tsv text/tab-separated-values
tsv text/tab-separated-values
ttf application/octet-stream
ttz application/t-time
txt text/plain
ult audio/x-mod
ustar application/x-ustar
uu application/x-uuencode
uue application/x-uuencode
vcd application/x-cdlink
vcf text/x-vcard
vdo video/vdo
vib audio/vib
viv video/vivo
vivo video/vivo
vmd application/vocaltec-media-desc
vmf application/vocaltec-media-file
vmi application/x-dreamcast-vms-info
vms application/x-dreamcast-vms
vox audio/voxware
vqe audio/x-twinvq-plugin
vqf audio/x-twinvq
vql audio/x-twinvq
vre x-world/x-vream
vrml x-world/x-vrml
vrt x-world/x-vrt
vrw x-world/x-vream
vts workbook/formulaone
wav audio/x-wav
wax audio/x-ms-wax
wbmp image/vnd.wap.wbmp
web application/vnd.xara
wi image/wavelet
wis application/x-InstallShield
wm video/x-ms-wm
wma audio/x-ms-wma
wmd application/x-ms-wmd
wmf application/x-msmetafile
wml text/vnd.wap.wml
wmlc application/vnd.wap.wmlc
wmls text/vnd.wap.wmlscript
wmlsc application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc
wmlscript text/vnd.wap.wmlscript
wmv audio/x-ms-wmv
wmx video/x-ms-wmx
wmz application/x-ms-wmz
wpng image/x-up-wpng
wpt x-lml/x-gps
wri application/x-mswrite
wrl x-world/x-vrml
wrz x-world/x-vrml
ws text/vnd.wap.wmlscript
wsc application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc
wv video/wavelet
wvx video/x-ms-wvx
wxl application/x-wxl
x-gzip application/x-gzip
xar application/vnd.xara
xbm image/x-xbitmap
xdm application/x-xdma
xdma application/x-xdma
xdw application/vnd.fujixerox.docuworks
xht application/xhtml+xml
xhtm application/xhtml+xml
xhtml application/xhtml+xml
xla application/vnd.ms-excel
xlc application/vnd.ms-excel
xll application/x-excel
xlm application/vnd.ms-excel
xls application/vnd.ms-excel
xlt application/vnd.ms-excel
xlw application/vnd.ms-excel
xm audio/x-mod
xml text/xml
xmz audio/x-mod
xpi application/x-xpinstall
xpm image/x-xpixmap
xsit text/xml
xsl text/xml
xul text/xul
xwd image/x-xwindowdump
xyz chemical/x-pdb
yz1 application/x-yz1
z application/x-compress
zac application/x-zaurus-zac
zip application/zip